79 evidence of Persian's historical influence there can be seen in the extent of its influence on certain languages of the Indian subcontinent. Words borrowed from Persian are still quite commonly used in certain Indo-Aryan languages, especially Urdu, also historically known as Hindustani. There is also a small population of Zoroastrian Iranis in India, who migrated around 16th18th century to escape religious execution in Qajar Iran and speak a dari dialect. Contemporary persian edit a variant of the Iranian standard isiri 9147 keyboard layout for Persian In the 19th century, under the qajar dynasty, the dialect spoken in Tehran rose to prominence. This became the basis of what is now known as "Contemporary Standard Persian". There is still substantial Arabic vocabulary, but many of these words have been integrated into persian phonology and grammar.
Persian for Beginners, handwriting
74 The educated and noble class of the Ottoman Empire all spoke persian, such as sultan Selim i, despite being Safavid Iran's archrival and a staunch opposer of Shia islam. 75 It was a major literary language in the empire. 76 Some of the noted earlier Persian works during the Ottoman rule are Idris Bidlisi 's Hasht Bihisht, which begun in 1502 and covered the reign of the first eight Ottoman rulers, and the salim-Namah, a glorification of Selim. 75 After a period of several centuries, Ottoman Turkish (which was highly persianised itself) had developed towards a fully accepted language of literature, which was even able to satisfy the demands of a scientific presentation. 77 However, the number of Persian and Arabic loanwords contained in those works increased at times book up. 77 Use in south Asia edit main article: Persian language in south Asia see also: Persian and Urdu persian poem, Agra fort, india, 18th century persian poem, takht-e shah Jahan, agra fort, india the persian language influenced the formation of many modern languages in West. Following the turko-persian Ghaznavid conquest of south Asia, persian was firstly introduced in the region by turkic Central Asians. 78 The basis in general for the introduction of Persian language into the subcontinent was set, from its earliest days, by various Persianized Central Asian Turkic and Afghan dynasties. 72 For five centuries prior to the British colonization, persian was widely used as a second language in the Indian subcontinent, due to the admiration the mughals (who were of Turco-mongol origin) had for the foreign language. It took prominence as the language of culture and education in several Muslim courts on the subcontinent and became the sole "official language" under the mughal emperors. Beginning in 1843, though, English and Hindustani gradually replaced Persian in importance on the subcontinent.
70 Persian during this time served as lingua franca of Greater Persia and of much of the Indian subcontinent. It was also buy the official and cultural language of many Islamic dynasties, including the samanids, buyids, tahirids, ziyarids, the mughal Empire, timurids, ghaznavids, karakhanids, seljuqs, khwarazmians, the sultanate of Rum, delhi sultanate, the Shirvanshahs, safavids, afsharids, zands, qajars, khanate of bukhara, khanate of kokand, emirate. Persian was the only non-European language known and used by marco polo at the court of Kublai khan and in his journeys through China. 71 Use in Asia minor edit despite Anatolia having been ruled at various times prior to the middle Ages by various Persian-speaking dynasties originating in Iran, the language lost its traditional foothold there with the demise of the sasanian Empire. Centuries later however, the practise and usage of Persian in the region would be strongly revived. A branch of the seljuks, the sultanate of Rum, took persian language, art and letters to Anatolia. 72 They adopted Persian language as the official language of the empire. 73 The Ottomans, which can roughly be seen as their eventual successors, took this tradition over. Persian was the official court language of the empire, and for some time, the official language of the empire.
He flourished in the 10th century, when the samanids were at the height of resume their power. His reputation as a court poet and as an accomplished musician and singer has survived, although little of his poetry has been preserved. Among his lost works is versified fables collected in the kalila wa dimna. 20 The language spread geographically from the 11th century on and was the medium through which among others, central Asian Turks became familiar with Islam and urban culture. New Persian was widely used as a trans-regional lingua franca, a task for which it was particularly suitable due to its relatively simple morphological structure and this situation persisted until at least 19th century. 66 In the late middle Ages, new Islamic literary languages were created on the persian model: Ottoman Turkish, chagatai and Urdu, which are regarded as "structural daughter languages" of Persian. 66 Classical Persian edit see also: List of Persian poets and authors "Classical Persian" loosely refers to the standardized language of medieval Persia used in literature and poetry. This is the language of the 10th to 12th centuries, which continued to be used as literary language and lingua franca under the " Persianized " Turko-mongol dynasties during the 12th to 15th centuries, and under restored Persian rule during the 16th to 19th centuries.
65 Early new Persian edit "New Persian" is taken to replace middle persian in the course of the 8th to 9th centuries, under Abbasid rule. 66 With the decline of the Abbasids began the reestablishment of Persian national life and Persians laid the foundations for a renaissance in the realm of letters. New Persian as an independent literary language first emerges in Bactria through the adaptation of the spoken form of Sassanian Middle persian court language called Pārsi-ye dari. The cradle of the persian literary renaissance lay in the east of Greater Iran in Greater Khorasan and Transoxiana close to the Amu darya (modern day afghanistan, tajikstan, uzbekistan and Turkmenistan). 67 The mastery of the newer speech having now been transformed from Middle into new Persian was already complete by the era of the three princely dynasties of Iranian origin, the tahirid dynasty (820872 saffarid dynasty (860903) and Samanid Empire (874999 and could develop only. 67 Abbas of Merv is mentioned as being the earliest minstrel to chant verse in the newer Persian tongue and after him the poems of Hanzala badghisi were among the most famous between the persian-speakers of the time. 68 The first poems of the persian language, a language historically called Dari, emerged in Afghanistan. 69 The first significant Persian poet was Rudaki.
Persian, writing, lesson 67 - easy, persian
The native name of Middle persian was about Parsig or Parsik, after the name of the ethnic group of the southwest, that is, "of Pars old Persian Parsa, new Persian Fars. This is the origin of the name farsi as it is today used to signify new Persian. Following the collapse of the sassanid state, parsik came to be applied exclusively to (either Middle or New) Persian that was written in the Arabic script. From about the 9th century onward, as Middle persian was on the threshold of becoming New Persian, the older form of the language came to be erroneously called Pahlavi, which was actually but one of the writing systems used to render both Middle persian. That writing system had previously been adopted by the sassanids (who were persians,.
From the southwest) from the preceding Arsacids (who were parthians,. While Ibn al-Muqaffa' (eighth century) still distinguished between Pahlavi (i.e. Parthian) and Persian (in Arabic text: al-Farisiyah) (i.e. Middle persian this distinction is not evident in Arab commentaries written after that date. Gernot Windfuhr considers new Persian as an evolution of the Old Persian language and the middle persian language 61 but also states that none of the known Middle persian dialects is the direct predecessor of Modern Persian. 62 63 Ludwig paul states: "The language of the Shahnameh should be seen as one instance of continuous historical development from Middle to new Persian." 64 New Persian edit "New Persian" is conventionally divided into three stages: Early new Persian (8th/9th centuries) Classical Persian (10th18th.
In general, Iranian languages are known from three periods, usually referred to as Old, middle, and New (Modern) periods. These correspond to three eras in Iranian history ; Old era being the period from sometime before Achaemenids, the Achaemenid era and sometime after Achaemenids (that is to 400300 bc middle era being the next period most officially sassanid era and sometime in post-Sassanid era. 51 According to available documents, the persian language is "the only Iranian language" 15 for which close philological relationships between all of its three stages are established and so that Old, middle, and New Persian represent 15 52 one and the same language of Persian;. 52 The known history of the persian language can be divided into the following three distinct periods: Old Persian edit main articles: Old Persian and Persian verbs As a written language, old Persian is attested in royal Achaemenid inscriptions. The oldest known text written in Old Persian is from the behistun Inscription. 53 Examples of Old Persian have been found in what is now Iran, romania ( Gherla armenia, bahrain, iraq, turkey and Egypt.
57 58 Old Persian is one of the oldest Indo-european languages which is attested in original texts. 59 Xenophon, a greek general serving in some of the persian expeditions, describes many aspects of Armenian village life and hospitality in around 401 bc, which is at a time when Old Persian was the only form of Persian used. He relates that the Armenians spoke a language that to his ear sounded like the language of the persians. 60 Middle persian edit main article: Middle persian The complex grammatical conjugation and declension of Old Persian yielded to the structure of Middle persian in which the dual number disappeared, leaving only singular and plural, as did gender. Middle persian developed the ezāfe construction, expressed through ī (modern ye to indicate some of the relations between words that have been lost with the simplification of the earlier grammatical system. Although the "middle period" of the Iranian languages formally begins with the fall of the Achaemenid Empire, the transition from Old to middle persian had probably already begun before the 4th century. However, middle persian is not actually attested until 600 years later when it appears in the sassanid era (224651) inscriptions, so any form of the language before this date cannot be described with any degree of certainty. Moreover, as a literary language, middle persian is not attested until much later, to the 6th or 7th century. And from the 8th century onward, middle persian gradually began yielding to new Persian, with the middle-period form only continuing in the texts of Zoroastrianism.
School Programs, persian, cultural Center
46 Some persian language scholars such as Ehsan Yarshater, editor of Encyclopædia iranica, and University of Arizona professor Kamran Talattof, have also rejected the usage short of "Farsi" in their articles. 47 48 The essay international language-encoding standard iso 639-1 uses the code fa, as its coding system is mostly based on the local names. The more detailed standard iso 639-3 uses the name "Persian" (code fas) for the dialect continuum spoken across Iran and Afghanistan. This consists of the individual languages Dari (Afghan Persian) and Iranian Persian. 49 Currently, voice of America, bbc world Service, deutsche welle, and Radio free europe/Radio liberty use "Persian Service" for their broadcasts in the language. Radio free europe/Radio liberty also includes a tajik service and an Afghan (Dari) service. This is also the case for the American Association of teachers of Persian, the centre for Promotion of Persian Language and Literature, and many of the leading scholars of the persian language. 50 History edit persian is an Iranian language belonging to the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-european family of languages.
40 Native iranian Persian speakers call it Fārsi. 41 Farsi is the Arabicized form of Pārsi, subsequent to Arab conquest of Iran, due to a lack of the phoneme /p/ in Standard Arabic (i.e., the /p/ was replaced with an /f. The origin of the name farsi and the place of origin of the language which is Fars Province is the Arabicized form of Pārs. In English, this language has historically been known as Persian, though Farsi has also gained some currency. Farsi is encountered in some linguistic literature as a name for the language, used both by Iranian and by foreign authors. 45 In modern English the word Farsi refers to the language while parsi (or Parsee ) describes Zoroastrians, particularly in south Asia. The Academy of Persian Language and Literature has declared that the name persian is more appropriate, as it has the longer tradition in western languages and better expresses the role of the language as a mark of cultural and national continuity.
verse by saadi Shirazi, the. Contents Classification edit persian is one of the western Iranian languages within the Indo-european family. Other Western Iranian languages are the kurdish languages, gilaki, mazanderani, talysh, and Balochi. Persian is classified as a member of the southwestern subgroup within Western Iranian along with Lari, kumzari, and Luri. 27 Etymology edit persian language name in Persian edit In Persian, the language is known by several names: Western Persian, farsi ( fārsi or zabān-e fārsi the Arabic form of Parsi ( pārsi has been the name used by native speakers until the 20th century. In recent decades some authors writing in English have referred to the variety of Persian spoken in Iran as Farsi ; 32 33 although the name persian is also still widely used. Eastern Persian, dari ( darī ) or Dari persian ( fārsi-ye dari ) was originally a synonym for Farsi but since the latter decades of the 20th century has become the name for the variety of Persian spoken in Afghanistan, where it is one. Persian language name in English edit persian, the historically more widely used name of the language in English, is an anglicized form derived from Latin * Persianus latin Persia greek περσίς ( Persís ) "Persia 38 a hellenized form of Old Persian Pārsa. 39 According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the term Persian as a language name is first attested in English in the mid-16th century.
Arabic script, which itself evolved from the. 13 14 The persian language is classified as a dessay continuation of Middle persian, the official religious and literary language of the sasanian Empire, itself a continuation of Old Persian, the language of the Achaemenid Empire. Its grammar is similar to that of many contemporary european languages. 18 a persian-speaking person may be referred to as Persophone. 19 There are approximately 110 million Persian speakers worldwide, with the language holding official status in Iran, afghanistan, and Tajikistan. For centuries, persian has also been a prestigious cultural language in other regions of Western Asia, central Asia, and south Asia by the various empires based in the regions. 20 Persian has had a considerable (mainly lexical ) influence on neighboring languages, particularly the turkic languages in Central Asia, caucasus, and Anatolia, neighboring Iranian languages, as well as Armenian, georgian, and Indo-Aryan languages, especially Urdu (a register of Hindustani ). It also exerted some influence on Arabic, particularly bahrani Arabic, 21 while borrowing much vocabulary from it after the Arab conquest of Iran. With a long history of literature in the form of Middle persian before Islam, persian was the first language in the muslim world to break through Arabic 's monopoly on writing, and the writing of poetry in Persian was established as a court tradition.
Translation of, handwriting in English
For other uses, see. Persian ( /pɜrʒən, -ʃən/ also known by its endonym, farsi 9 10 ( fārsi fɒɾsi ( listen is one of the, western Iranian languages within the. Indo-Iranian branch of the, indo-european language family. It is primarily spoken. Iran, afghanistan (officially known as, dari since 1958 11 and, tajikistan (officially known as, tajiki since the. Soviet era 12 and some other regions which historically were. Persianate societies and considered part of, greater Iran. It is written in the. Persian alphabet, a modified variant of the.