Consider what sections and section headers you might use to organize your thesis. Part 3 Drafting your Introduction 1 Identify the reader. The most effective thesis allows the reader to understand and hopefully agree with the author. Consider who your reader might be and what information they require to understand your topic. For most theses, your imagined reader will be someone who is conversant in your general field of study but is not an expert in your specific research topic. 2 Begin with a strong declaration of your argument.
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Do you still believe it? Or does your thesis require some revision? Take some time to think hard and carefully about what your new thesis statement might. 9 Organize your research into an outline. An outline is a general, organized sketch of a large piece of writing. It provides a brief overview of each section of your thesis and will likely list the evidence you will use in each section. 26 be sure that each stage of your thesis helps to affirm your thesis statement. As you write, you can use the outline as a guide to keep you focused and relevant. However, many people find that they must depart somewhat from the outline as they write: this is a normal love part of the writing process. 27 Many long theses are arranged in several, related sections.
It can also be helpful to look through the citations of your research materials to get ideas for other sources you might read. It is important to write this information down because you will likely be reading through dozens of sources: it will be easy to forget vital pieces of information. 7 Cite all your sources carefully. In order to ensure that you do not plagiarize, be very careful about citing all of your sources. Whenever you" another author, refer to another study, or paraphrase a scholarly argument, you must cite your sources. 25 It is the responsible thing to do, and you might suffer huge consequences for failing to cite your sources properly. 8 Consider whether you still believe your tentative thesis statement. After you complete the bulk of your research process, you will have a lot more expertise in your research topic. Take another look at your tentative research statement.
Many libraries shelve according to subject, and there might be relevant materials in red the immediate vicinity of the books you identified. Research libraries often employ research librarians who can help you identify additional sources and databases to aid you in your search. Talk to the library staff to see if someone management might be willing to assist you with your research project. 22 5 Ensure the accuracy of your research and sources. Not every source you find will be an accurate, scholarly source. Be wary of random internet searches. 23 make sure that your sources have gone through a peer review process, are published in legitimate journals or with established scholarly presses, and cite their sources properly. 24 6 take excellent notes. Write down key pieces of information as you read your research materials, such as their thesis, methods, key terms, pithy"tions, and major sources of evidence.
At other times it will provide you with a title that you must track down yourself at another library. If your university does not subscribe to an online database related to your field of study, you can use open-access searches such as google Scholar. You might also visit your local public library to see if they have access to online databases that can help you. 4 Use a research library to acquire sources. Many colleges and universities have a research library that has extensive holdings that include periodicals, books, and other media (such as films or photographs). 21 Use the library catalog search engine in order to narrow down some potential journal articles and books for you to read. Remember to scan the shelves that surround the book titles you acquired during your search.
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Each of these kinds of research might require a different time investment, so keep this in mind as you prepare your thesis. If your research involves human portal subjects, remember that you are usually required to get approval from an Institutional review board. 19 This can take extra time, so be sure that you submit your project proposal early. 2 Examine relevant commentary about your topic. No matter your field of study, other professionals and experts will have written analyses on your topic or closely related topics. Many theses have a section known as the literature review, in which you describe these major scholarly conversations and debates. Having a thorough literature review will allow you to explain where you stand in these debates.
Some types of commentaries you might encounter include: The results of related scientific experiments The results of related social science surveys Theoretical analysis of your topic Historical analysis of your topic 3 Use searchable databases to acquire sources. Many colleges and universities subscribe to online databases that compile relevant research materials. Sometimes these databases are specific to a single field of study (such as the literature Online database others are more general (such as Jstor). 20 by using keyword searches and Library of Congress subject heading searches within these databases, you can acquire a solid list of potential sources that will aid your literature review. Sometimes these databases will provide you with direct access to an online copy of a book or article.
Your thesis will be governed by your thesis statement, which is a clear and concise summary of your argument. A thesis statement is usually 1-3 sentences in length. 11 having a tentative thesis statement at the outset can help your paper remain focused and grounded. However, as you continue researching you might find that your thesis is somehow inadequate and must be revised. This is a normal part of the writing process. Remember that your thesis must be: Clear 12 Specific 13 Arguable 14 rooted in facts, not pure opinions 15 (though sometimes expert opinion can count as evidence) Non-judgmental and non-confrontational 16 Relevant to the assignment Significant 7 make a timeline.
One of the most useful things you can do before you begin writing is to carefully plan the trajectory of your research, writing, and revising process. Be sure that you leave yourself plenty of time to accomplish each task, and leave yourself some leeway in case you encounter any roadblocks in your research. Depending on the length and expectations of your thesis, you might spend anywhere from a few weeks to over a year working on a thesis. 17 Part 2 Compiling your Research 1 Determine the kind of research required of your thesis. Different fields of study will have different conventions about what counts as research. For example, a social science field might require that you engage in surveys of human subjects. 18 A lab science field might require that you spend several weeks conducting experiments before you can begin writing. A humanities field might require that you closely examine several primary text sources, such as letters, diaries, novels, or historical documents.
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5, determine whether your thesis should be descriptive or prescriptive. A descriptive thesis argues that the world operates in a certain way. A prescriptive thesis, on the other hand, argues that the would should operate in a certain way. 10 Depending on your field of study, you might be expected to craft a descriptive argument or a prescriptive argument. A persuasive thesis can take either form. For example, "Voter id metamorphosis laws discourage minority voters reviews more than white voters" is a descriptive thesis. "Voter id laws should be abolished in order to maintain a democratic form of government" is a prescriptive thesis. 6 Write down a tentative thesis statement.
7, once you have collected and organized your thoughts, set up a meeting with your instructor to discuss your tentative topic. Take careful notes during the meeting: your instructor might have excellent suggestions for sources, approaches, and ideas that you could include in your thesis. Some thesis assignments even require that you submit a thesis proposal or annotated bibliography before you are permitted to begin writing. 8, if these are required of you, be sure you follow the appropriate assignment guidelines. Read a few initial research materials. While it is too early to begin fully delving into your research, you want usa to be sure that you have a general sense of your topic before you begin narrowing things down. Take a day or two to read some general sources surrounding your topic. 9, this will help you determine whether your topic is a viable one, and it might give you a sense of what your tentative thesis statement might.
to be manageable. On the other hand, "The type of thread used to sew civil War regimental flags" might skew too far in the other direction by being too narrow to sustain a lengthy thesis assignment. "The design of civil War regimental flags" is a topic that is just right: broad enough to provide you with plenty of research and flexibility, but narrow enough that you will not be overwhelmed. 3, discuss your tentative topic with your instructor. Instructors and thesis advisors are usually very happy to meet with thesis-writers about their topics. They want you to succeed as much as you.
Do i have to submit any pre-writing assignments (drafts, outlines, bibliographies, proposals, etc.)? Narrow down a research topic. Sometimes your research topic is provided to you by an instructor or university. At other times, you are responsible for brainstorming your own research topic. 4, you can consider framing your research topic as an interesting question to answer or as a tough puzzle to solve. 5, if you are coming up with your own topic, be sure to ask yourself paper the following questions: 6, is this topic something i am passionate about? Remember that you might spend several weeks or even months working with this topic, so it should hold your interest. Is this topic relevant to the assignment?
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